By L. Emet. University of Advancing Technology.
Iliac crest Gluteus medius muscle Gluteus minimus muscle Greater trochanter Sacrum of femur Piriformis muscle Sacrotuberous ligament Superior gemellus muscle Coccyx Obturator internus muscle Gluteus maximus Inferior gemellus muscle muscle Quadratus femoris Anus muscle Biceps femoris muscle Semitendinosus muscle FIGURE 10 bystolic 2.5mg low price. Internal Anatomy CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS The internal anatomy of the buttock and lower extremity in- clude the structures of the hip, thigh, knee, leg, and foot. The Head and Neck Regions principal structures of these regions are shown in the cadaver dis- sections in figures 10. The highly specialized head and neck regions are extremely vul- nerable to trauma and disease. Furthermore,because of the in- Knowledge Check credible complexity of these body regions,they are susceptible to numerous congenital conditions that occur during prenatal 21. List the clinically important structures that can be ob- penchant for contact sports and fast-moving vehicles, puts the served or palpated in the buttock and lower extremity. Surface and Regional © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Anatomy Companies, 2001 Chapter 10 Surface and Regional Anatomy 331 Iliacus m. Surface and Regional © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Anatomy Companies, 2001 332 Unit 4 Support and Movement Patella Patella Patellar ligament Patellar ligament Tibialis anterior m. Tendo calcaneus Inferior extensor retinaculum Superior extensor retinaculum Tendons of extensor digitorum longus m. Surface and Regional © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Anatomy Companies, 2001 Chapter 10 Surface and Regional Anatomy 333 readily gain access to the internal structures of the head and neck Sciatic n. Also, the risk for contracting certain diseases is greatly increased by the social na- Biceps femoris m. Developmental Conditions Congenital malformations of the head and neck regions result from genetic or environmental causes and are generally very seri- Common fibular ous. The less severe malformations may result in functional dis- nerve ability, whereas the more severe malformations usually make life Tibial nerve impossible. The cause of anencephaly is unknown, but genetic and geographic Gastrocnemius m. South Wales, for example, reports incidences of anencephaly as high as 1 in every 105 births.
Semen samples with low sperm motility can attained during puberty buy cheap bystolic 2.5mg on line, at approximately 12 years of age. The onset of puberty requires changes in the sensitivity, ac- There is no evidence for chemotactic interactions be- tivity, and function of several endocrine organs, including tween the egg and sperm, although evidence exists for spe- those of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Sperm arrive in the vicinity of the egg at random, and some exit into the abdominal cavity. Although sperm remain OVUM AND SPERM TRANSPORT, motile for up to 4 days, their fertilizing capacity is limited FERTILIZATION, AND IMPLANTATION to 1 to 2 days in the female reproductive tract. Sperm can be cryopreserved for years, if agents such as glycerol are Sperm deposited in the female reproductive tract swim up used to prevent ice crystal formation during freezing. During maturation in the epididymis, the sperm ac- enters the uterus, and implants into the endometrium. To bind to and penetrate the zona pellucida, the sperm must undergo ca- The Egg and Sperm Enter the Oviduct pacitation, an irreversible process that involves an increase A meiotically active egg is released from the ovary in a in sperm motility, the removal of surface proteins, a loss of cyclical manner in response to the LH surge. For a suc- lipids, and merging of the acrosomal and plasma mem- cessful fertilization, fresh sperm must be present at the branes of the sperm head. To increase the proba- branes and change in acrosomal structure is called the acro- bility that the sperm and egg will meet at an optimal time, some reaction. The reaction occurs when the sperm cell the female reproductive tract facilitates sperm transport binds to the zona pellucida of the egg. It involves a redis- during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, prior to tribution of membrane constituents, increased membrane ovulation (see Chapter 38). However, during the luteal fluidity, and a rise in calcium permeability. Capacitation phase, after ovulation, sperm survival and access to the takes place along the female genital tract and lasts 1 hour to oviduct are decreased.
Tinnitus may be intermittent or may be loud noise or can be a symptom of a more constant between attacks discount bystolic 2.5 mg without prescription, becoming worse serious condition, such as tumor, high during an attack. Typi- result from side effects or toxic effects of cally, hearing loss becomes progressively some medications. Lower nitus may be a separate entity, not asso- tones may be affected ﬁrst, but all tones ciated with a speciﬁc disorder and with no are affected as the disease progresses. If the cause can be Trauma or Disease identiﬁed and treated, the ringing can sometimes be eliminated. In other in- Hearing loss may also result from dam- stances, even though the cause is identi- age to the inner ear or to the acoustic nerve. Some individuals complain other chemicals that destroy the hair cells Diagnostic Procedures 151 of the inner ear or damage the eighth cra- of the vestibular system can cause symp- nial nerve); and infections, such as menin- toms that interfere with individuals’ func- gitis. Other neurological Vertigo is an illusory sense of motion, usu- conditions such as multiple sclerosis may ally described as a spinning sensation, and produce changes in the auditory pathway often thought of in terms of dizziness. Although vertigo can be associated with many conditions, it is always related to Presbycusis the body’s vestibular system. Episodes of vertigo can last from a few Presbycusis is caused by degenerative seconds to days. Vestibular neuronitis changes in the inner ear, neural pathways, (inﬂammation of the vestibular nerve), a or both; however, the reason that presby- disorder of the inner ear, can cause verti- cusis occurs is unknown. It has become a go that lasts for days or weeks and is ex- catchall term to include many types of tremely disabling during that time. During auditory deterioration, but it is commonly the episode, individuals become nau- thought to accompany structural changes seous with vomiting and feel a violent in the ear due to aging. It can also be er tonal frequencies is usually affected associated with head injury or other neu- ﬁrst, but the ability to hear lower frequen- rological conditions, such as brain tumor cies is gradually affected as well. Individuals CONDITIONS OF THE with hearing impairments may not be VESTIBULAR SYSTEM aware of the degree of loss, or they may deny that hearing loss exists.
Muscular System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy best bystolic 5 mg, Sixth Edition Companies, 2001 Chapter 9 Muscular System 253 (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 9. Muscular System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Companies, 2001 254 Unit 4 Support and Movement Superior rectus m. When contracted on one side, it turns the Inferior rectus Oculomotor Inferior and medial head sideways in the direction opposite the side on which the mus- Inferior oblique Oculomotor Superior and lateral cle is located. If both sternocleidomastoid muscles are contracted, Superior oblique Trochlear Inferior and lateral the head is pulled forward and down. The sternocleidomastoid muscle is covered by the platysma muscle (see figs. Although a portion of the trapezius muscle extends over the posterior neck region, it is primarily a superficial muscle of the back and will be described later. It originates on the tached to structures within the neck region, such as the hyoid ligamentum nuchae and the spinous processes of the seventh cer- bone and larynx. Only the more obvious neck muscles will be vical and first three thoracic vertebrae. Refer to chapter 10 to deter- tracts on one side, the head rotates and extends to one side. The Contracted together, the splenius capitis muscles extend the muscles of the neck are illustrated in figures 9. Muscular System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Companies, 2001 Chapter 9 Muscular System 255 FIGURE 9. When the two semi- upper five thoracic vertebrae and inserts on the mastoid spinalis capitis muscles contract together, they extend the head process of the temporal bone (fig.