By B. Seruk. California State University, Bakersfield.
Tizanidine purchase micardis 20 mg with amex, an direct excitatory actions of contralateral group II 2 adrenergic receptor agonist, appears to be par- afferents are disynaptic (Bajwa, Edgley & Harrison, ticularly effective in producing selective blockade 1992). Group II excitatory effects onto g motoneu- rones are also strongly depressed by noradrener- Inhibitory control systems gic agonists (Jankowska, Gladden & Czarkowska- Bauch, 1998). Note that 5-HT-releasing raphe-spinal Post-synaptic inhibition neurones may have opposite actions on group Mutual inhibition of group II interneurones may be II interneurones, facilitating their activation by evoked by group II volleys and by volleys in group I, group II afferents (Jankowska et al. Group II interneu- monoamines may act pre- and/or post-synaptically, rones are also inhibited by interneurones mediating but the mechanisms of their differential action on non-reciprocal group I inhibition. Inanyevent,theselectivenoradren- ergic gating of group II excitation of motoneurones Presynaptic inhibition with PAD provides the unique possibility in human studies of Group II afferent terminals are strongly depolarised producing pharmacological evidence for transmis- by group II muscle afferents and by cutaneous and sion through the pathway. Since group II interneurones may modify the sensitivity of muscle spindles via g-motoneurones Post-activation depression of transmission to (see above), it has been proposed that presynap- interneurones of the feline intermediate zone fed tic inhibition of group II terminals on group II by group I and group II afferents is marginal, much Methodology 293 weaker than with dorsal horn interneurones fed by Electrically induced heteronymous group II afferents (Hammar, Slawinska & Jankowska, group II excitation 2002). Group II excitation produced by electrically induced muscle group II volleys can be assessed in heterony- Methodology mous motoneurones using the modulation of the Hreﬂex, the PSTHs of single units, or the on-going Underlying principles EMG. However, such stimuli also activate group I afferents, and group II excitation is always super- imposed on group I effects. Several criteria may be Late high-threshold facilitation of the H reﬂex used to attribute a response to the activation of group II pathways: (i) longer latency than that of the (i) Stimulation of the gastrocnemius medialis monosynaptic Ia excitation due to the slower con- nerve at 2×MT produces a huge facilitation of the duction velocity of the afferent ﬁbres, (ii) electrical semitendinosus H reﬂex (Simonetta-Moreau et al. The facilitation has a relatively high thresh- (iii) suppression by tizanidine. In this experimental paradigm, group II excitation of leg and foot muscles excitationisnotcontaminatedsigniﬁcantlybyapre- ceding group I effect. However, the H reﬂex can This technique has been used extensively by Schiep- be recorded easily in semitendinosus only in thin pati and colleagues (Nardone et al. Sub- (ii)Stimulitothecommonperonealnerveproduce jects stand at ease, eyes open and arms by their sides more complex effects on the quadriceps H reﬂex, on a rotating platform, and the averaged rectiﬁed because the late high-threshold reﬂex facilitation on-going EMG activity of leg and foot muscles is observed with a stimulation at 2–3 × MT is superim- recorded during rotation of the platform around an posed on earlier group I effects (Fig. An of the platform produces a biphasic EMG response early excitation is the only effect obtained with stim- in soleus and ﬂexor digitorum brevis, with short- uli <1 × MT. It starts 3 ms after the expected arrival and medium-latency responses (Fig. The mean latency of the short-latency 1–2 ms later and then progressively declines (see response (SLR) is compatible with a monosynap- Forget et al.
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